ERIC Number: EJ924174
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2011-Jun
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: 44
Targeting Interventions: Moderators of the Effects of Expressive Writing and Assertiveness Training on the Adjustment of International University Students
Hijazi, Alaa M.; Tavakoli, Shedeh; Slavin-Spenny, Olga M.; Lumley, Mark A.
International Journal for the Advancement of Counselling, v33 n2 p101-112 Jun 2011
Acculturative stress is a common experience for international students and is associated with psychological and physical problems. In a previous study (Tavakoli "et al. Journal of Counseling Psychology 56":590-596, "2009"), the authors reported that two stress reduction interventions--expressive writing (EW) and assertiveness training (AT)--had limited overall benefits among international students at an American University. The current analyses of data from that study investigated whether individual differences moderated the effects of EW and AT. Results indicate that greater acculturative stress at baseline predicted greater improvement from both interventions. Additionally, women benefited more from AT than EW, except that EW improved women's physical symptoms. Men benefited more from EW than AT. Students with limited emotional awareness and expression tended to benefit from both interventions. Finally, nation of origin cultural differences generally did not predict outcomes. It is concluded that the benefits of EW and AT can be enhanced by targeting these interventions to specific subgroups of international students.
Descriptors: Foreign Students, Females, Assertiveness, Cultural Differences, Expressive Language, Counseling Psychology, Intervention, Writing (Composition), Student Adjustment, College Students, Acculturation, Stress Variables, Stress Management, Individual Differences, Prediction, Symptoms (Individual Disorders)
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Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Evaluative
Education Level: Higher Education
Authoring Institution: N/A