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ERIC Number: EJ920799
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2011
Pages: 8
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: N/A
ISBN: N/A
ISSN: ISSN-0160-2896
Improving General Intelligence with a Nutrient-Based Pharmacological Intervention
Stough, Con; Camfield, David; Kure, Christina; Tarasuik, Joanne; Downey, Luke; Lloyd, Jenny; Zangara, Andrea; Scholey, Andrew; Reynolds, Josh
Intelligence, v39 n2-3 p100-107 Mar-Apr 2011
Cognitive enhancing substances such as amphetamine and modafinil have become popular in recent years to improve acute cognitive performance particularly in environments in which enhanced cognition or intelligence is required. Nutraceutical nootropics, which are natural substances that have the ability to bring about acute or chronic changes in cognition have also been gaining popularity in a range of settings and applications including the workplace, driving and in the amelioration of age related cognitive decline. Huperzine A, Vinpocetine, Acetyl-L-carnitine, "Rhodiola Rosea" and Alpha-lipoic Acid are popular nutritional supplements that have shown promising benefits in improving a range of biological (e.g., blood flow, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and direct neurotransmitter effects) and cognitive processes from "in vitro," animal and human clinical research. We report here the first human randomized clinical trial for cognition in which we administer a combination of Huperzine A, Vinpocetine, Acetyl-L-carnitine, "R. Rosea" and Alpha-lipoic acid (called Ceretrophin) vs placebo. Sixty participants (40 females and 20 males, with a mean age of 45.4 years, SD = 12.6) completed either the odd or even items from the Raven Advanced Progressive Matrices (APM) at baseline and the opposite odd or even items at week 4 after consuming either the combination nootropic or placebo. A significant study visit (time) x treatment condition interaction was found: F (1, 57) = 7.279, p = 0.009, partial eta[superscript 2] = 0.113, with paired samples t-tests revealing a significant improvement in mean APM score from baseline to retest (week 4) (t(34) = -4.045, p less than 0.001) for the Ceretrophin[TM] group. Improvements in APM scores could be attributed to the active intervention over the placebo, indicating that the treatment improved general intelligence. Implications for improving our understanding of the biological basis of intelligence and pharmacologically improving human cognition are discussed.
Elsevier. 6277 Sea Harbor Drive, Orlando, FL 32887-4800. Tel: 877-839-7126; Tel: 407-345-4020; Fax: 407-363-1354; e-mail: usjcs@elsevier.com; Web site: http://www.elsevier.com
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Assessments and Surveys: Raven Advanced Progressive Matrices