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ERIC Number: EJ918817
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2010
Pages: 4
Abstractor: ERIC
Reference Count: N/A
ISSN: ISSN-0013-1253
Grades--When, Why, What Impact, and How?
O'Connor, Ken
Education Canada, v50 n2 p38-41 Spr 2010
Over the last 10 to 15 years, each province and territory in Canada has introduced curriculum based on clearly defined learning goals. They use different labels--for example, "learning outcomes" in Manitoba and Alberta, "expectations" in Ontario--but all are intended to be "standards-based" systems where the focus is on outputs ("students will") rather than inputs ("students will be provided with opportunities to"). At the same time, there has been a growing focus on the key role of assessment in the learning process, and each jurisdiction in Canada has put increasing emphasis on principles of quality assessment and the need for assessment-literate communities. These two parallel developments have led to a growing recognition of a mismatch between many traditional practices and the requirements of standards-based, assessment-literate systems. Practices such as combining achievement and behaviour in grades, the use of penalties for "late work", the use of zeros as punishments, and the role of homework in grading have all come into question. Some of the provincial policies designed to address these concerns have been controversial. The purpose of this article is to provide some background to these issues by providing information about the history of grading, the purposes of grades, the impact of grades, and how grades have and should be determined. (Contains 1 figure and 15 notes.)
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Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Descriptive
Education Level: Elementary Secondary Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: Canada