ERIC Number: EJ914238
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2011-Jan
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: 71
The Dopamine Receptor D4 Gene ("DRD4") Moderates Family Environmental Effects on ADHD
Martel, Michelle M.; Nikolas, Molly; Jernigan, Katherine; Friderici, Karen; Waldman, Irwin; Nigg, Joel T.
Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, v39 n1 p1-10 Jan 2011
Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a prime candidate for exploration of gene-by-environment interaction (i.e., G x E), particularly in relation to dopamine system genes, due to strong evidence that dopamine systems are dysregulated in the disorder. Using a G x E design, we examined whether the "DRD4" promoter 120-bp tandem repeat polymorphism, previously associated with ADHD, moderated the effects of inconsistent parenting and marital conflict on ADHD or Oppositional-Defiant Disorder (ODD). Participants were 548 children with ADHD and non-ADHD comparison children and their parents. Homozygosity for the "DRD4" promoter 120-bp tandem repeat insertion allele increased vulnerability for ADHD and ODD only in the presence of inconsistent parenting and appeared to increase susceptibility to the influence of increased child self-blame for marital conflict on ADHD inattention. "DRD4" genotypes may interact with these proximal family environmental risk factors by increasing the individual's responsivity to environmental contingencies.
Descriptors: Conflict, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Attention Deficit Disorders, Child Rearing, Risk, Parent Child Relationship, Genetics, Correlation, Marital Satisfaction, Behavior Disorders, Family Environment
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Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Evaluative
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A