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ERIC Number: EJ913397
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2010-Apr
Pages: 5
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: 11
ISSN: ISSN-0021-9584
The Full Story of the Electron Configurations of the Transition Elements
Schwarz, W. H. Eugen
Journal of Chemical Education, v87 n4 p444-448 Apr 2010
The dominant electronic valence configurations of atoms in chemical substances of a transition element of group "G" in period "n" is ("n" - 1)d[superscript "G"]"n"s[superscript 0]. Transition-metal chemistry is d orbital chemistry. In contrast, the ground states of free, unbound atoms derive, in most cases, from configurations ("n" - 1)d[superscript "G"-1]"n"s[superscript 1] or ("n" - 1)d[superscript "G"-2]"n"s[superscript 2]. Five features must be considered to resolve this paradox. Point (i), the d-s orbital-energy distance in relation to the averaged differences of dd, ds, and ss two-electron repulsion energies, has often been discussed in the literature. However, four equally important features are (ii) the different two-electron repulsion energies within the d shell; (iii) the spin-orbit coupling energies in the d shell;and, in particular, (iv) the "d-orbital collapse" below the s level for increasing nuclear charge around group 3 and (v) the different perturbations of the valence ("n" - 1)d and "n"s orbitals when a free atom enters an alloy or compound. There is a conceptual difference between spectroscopic ground "states" and chemically dominant ground "configurations". The ground states of unbound atoms mentioned in most chemistry textbooks have little meaning in chemistry. (Contains 2 tables, 3 figures and 3 notes.)
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Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Evaluative
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A