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ERIC Number: EJ908237
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2011-Jan
Pages: 19
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: 51
ISSN: ISSN-0363-4523
The Effect of Instructor Nonverbal Immediacy Behaviors and Feedback Sensitivity on Hispanic Students' Affective Learning Outcomes in Ninth-Grade Writing Conferences
Martin, Laura; Mottet, Timothy P.
Communication Education, v60 n1 p1-19 Jan 2011
The purpose of this study was to show how instructor use of nonverbal immediacy behaviors influence Hispanic students' affective learning in ninth-grade writing conferences, regardless of the level of feedback sensitivity provided. According to Kluger and DeNisi's (1996) feedback intervention theory, when feedback is direct and targeted on the task, learning is enhanced. If feedback is indirect and targeted on the relationship or feelings, then learning is diminished. Regardless of whether the relational feedback is perceived as positive or negative, learning is diminished because the learner's focus is diverted away from the task itself (Kluger & DeNisi). Three hypotheses were tested using a 2 x 2 experimental design. The independent variables were teacher nonverbal immediacy (immediate/nonimmediate) and sensitivity of feedback (high/low verbal sensitivity). The dependent variables were Hispanic students' affect for teacher and affective learning for writing. All three hypotheses were supported in that teacher nonverbal immediacy positively impacted students' affect for the teacher (H1), writing conference (H2), and writing process (H3) regardless of how sensitive the teacher's feedback was during the writing conference. Implications, limitations, and directions for future research are discussed. (Contains 3 tables.)
Routledge. Available from: Taylor & Francis, Ltd. 325 Chestnut Street Suite 800, Philadelphia, PA 19106. Tel: 800-354-1420; Fax: 215-625-2940; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: Grade 9; High Schools; Secondary Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: Texas