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ERIC Number: EJ907952
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2010
Pages: 7
Abstractor: As Provided
ISSN: ISSN-1559-5676
The Effects of Visible Cheese on the Selection and Consumption of Food Groups to Encourage in Middle School Students
Donnelly, Joseph E.; Sullivan, Debra K.; Smith, Bryan K.; Gibson, Cheryl A.; Mayo, Matt; Lee, Robert; Lynch, Anthony; Sallee, Tara; Cook-Weins, Galen; Washburn, Richard A.
Journal of Child Nutrition & Management, v34 n1 Spr 2010
Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of the investigation was to determine the effects of visible cheese on selection and consumption of food groups to encourage (FGTE) in middle school students. Methods: Study 1 was conducted in three middle schools with 145 students (Boys=67, Girls=78, 30% minorities). The regular monthly menus were altered to provide items presented as normally served or with additional visible cheese. Study 2 was conducted in a research kitchen and utilized 72 middle school students (Boys=30, Girls=42, 78% minorities). For both studies FGTE were presented side-by-side as normally served with no visible cheese (NC) or with additional visible cheese (VC) across a 3 week period. Selection and consumption was documented using digital photography before and after the meal. Both studies assessed energy and macronutrient content using Nutrition Data System for Research software. Both studies assessed satiety and consumer satisfaction. Cost analysis was completed for Study 1. Results: For Study 1, the composite score for FGTE indicated 16% greater consumption for VC compared to NC (p less than 0.08). Energy consumed for VC compared to NC was 35 kcal less (ns). VC increased the cost of an item [approximately equal to]$0.20. For Study 2, the proportion of students who selected VC items compared to NC items was 0.74 (p less than 0.0001). The composite score for FGTE indicated greater consumption for VC compared to NC (54% to 46%; p less than 0.002). Energy consumed for VC compared to NC was 187 kcal greater. Both studies indicated greater consumer satisfaction for FGTE with VC and similar satiety compared to NC. Applications to Child Nutrition Professionals: FGTE were not consumed in recommended amounts. Strategies are available to offset any increase in cost due to added VC. VC may be a strategy to increase consumption of FGTE in middle school children. (Contains 4 tables.)
School Nutrition Association. 120 Waterfront Street Suite 300, National Harbor, MD 20745. Tel: 301-686-3100; Fax: 301-686-3115; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: Middle Schools
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A