NotesFAQContact Us
Search Tips
Peer reviewed Peer reviewed
Direct linkDirect link
ERIC Number: EJ906971
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2010-Dec
Pages: 10
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: 0
ISSN: ISSN-0007-0998
Example-Based Learning: Effects of Model Expertise in Relation to Student Expertise
Boekhout, Paul; van Gog, Tamara; van de Wiel, Margje W. J.; Gerards-Last, Dorien; Geraets, Jacques
British Journal of Educational Psychology, v80 n4 p557-566 Dec 2010
Background: Worked examples are very effective for novice learners. They typically present a written-out ideal (didactical) solution for learners to study. Aims: This study used worked examples of patient history taking in physiotherapy that presented a "non"-didactical solution (i.e., based on actual performance). The effects of model expertise (i.e., worked example based on advanced, third-year student model or expert physiotherapist model) in relation to students' expertise (i.e., first- or second-year) were investigated. Sample: One hundred and thirty-four physiotherapy students (61 first-year and 73 second-year). Methods: Design was 2x2 factorial with factors "Student Expertise" (first-year vs. second-year) and "Model Expertise" (expert vs. advanced student). Within expertise levels, students were randomly assigned to the Expert Example or the Advanced Student Example condition. All students studied two examples (content depending on their assigned condition) and then completed a retention and test task. They rated their invested mental effort after each example and test task. Results: Second-year students invested less mental effort in studying the examples, and in performing the retention and transfer tasks than first-year students. They also performed better on the retention test, but not on the transfer test. In contrast to our hypothesis, there was no interaction between student expertise and model expertise: all students who had studied the Expert examples performed better on the transfer test than students who had studied Advanced Student Examples. Conclusions: This study suggests that when worked examples are based on actual performance, rather than an ideal procedure, expert models are to be preferred over advanced student models.
British Psychological Society. St Andrews House, 48 Princess Road East, Leicester, LE1 7DR, UK. Tel: +44-116-254-9568; Fax: +44-116-227-1314; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: Higher Education; Postsecondary Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A