ERIC Number: EJ905079
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2010-Dec
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: 12
Perceived School and Neighborhood Safety, Neighborhood Violence and Academic Achievement in Urban School Children
Milam, A. J.; Furr-Holden, C. D. M.; Leaf, P. J.
Urban Review: Issues and Ideas in Public Education, v42 n5 p458-467 Dec 2010
Community and school violence continue to be a major public health problem, especially among urban children and adolescents. Little research has focused on the effect of school safety and neighborhood violence on academic performance. This study examines the effect of the school and neighborhood climate on academic achievement among a population of 3rd-5th grade students in an urban public school system. Community and school safety were assessed using the School Climate Survey, an annual City-wide assessment of student's perception of school and community safety. Community violence was measured using the Neighborhood Inventory for Environmental Typology, an objective observational assessment of neighborhood characteristics. Academic achievement was measured using the Maryland State Assessment (MSA), a standardized exam given to all Maryland 3rd-8th graders. School Climate Data and MSA data were aggregated by school and grade. Objective assessments of neighborhood environment and students' self-reported school and neighborhood safety were both strongly associated with academic performance. Increasing neighborhood violence was associated with statistically significant decreases from 4.2 to 8.7% in math and reading achievement; increasing perceived safety was associated with significant increases in achievement from 16 to 22%. These preliminary findings highlight the adverse impact of perceived safety and community violence exposure on primary school children's academic performance.
Descriptors: Urban Schools, Neighborhoods, Violence, School Safety, Reading Achievement, Academic Achievement, Public Health, Urban Youth, Surveys, Elementary School Students, Correlation, Mathematics Achievement, Middle School Students, Measures (Individuals), Standardized Tests
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Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: Elementary Education; Grade 3; Grade 4; Grade 5; Grade 6; Grade 7; Grade 8; Middle Schools
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: Maryland