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ERIC Number: EJ902017
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2006
Pages: 5
Abstractor: ERIC
Reference Count: 16
ISSN: ISSN-0040-0599
Learning to Write: Progress-Monitoring Tools for Beginning and at-Risk Writers
Ritchey, Kristen D.
TEACHING Exceptional Children, v39 n2 p22-26 Nov-Dec 2006
Teachers now have a wide range of tools to help assess the beginning reading performance of kindergarten and first-grade children. However, validated procedures for assessing the beginning writing skills of kindergarten and first-grade children are less widely available. Learning to write, like learning to read, is a complex task. The ability to write letters and spell words requires multiple skills and the combined knowledge of the phonological and orthographic nature of written language; cognitive skills, such as working memory; and fine motor development. Although less research has focused on early writing skills and early identification of students who may be at risk for writing difficulties, this area is no less important for academic progress. In this article, the author discusses four instruments that can be used to assess the beginning writing skills of young children and to monitor the progress of typically developing kindergarten and first-grade children and the remedial progress of older children with learning or other disabilities. The four instruments are (1) Letter Writing; (2) Sound Spelling; (3) Real Word Spelling; and (4) Nonsense Word Spelling. (Contains 2 tables.)
Council for Exceptional Children. 1110 North Glebe Road Suite 300, Arlington, VA 22201. Tel: 888-232-7733; Fax: 703-264-9494; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Descriptive
Education Level: Grade 1; Kindergarten
Audience: Teachers
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A