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ERIC Number: EJ899345
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2009
Pages: 9
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: 51
ISSN: ISSN-0749-4025
The Effects of Nonverbal and Verbal Immediacy on Recall and Multiple Student Learning Indicators
Goodboy, Alan K.; Weber, Keith; Bolkan, San
Journal of Classroom Interaction, v44 n1 p4-12 2009
A 2 x 2 experiment was conducted in which instructor nonverbal immediacy and verbal immediacy were manipulated in a college classroom to examine causal links with cognitive and affective learning outcomes. Previous criticisms concerning immediacy and learning research were considered and multiple operationalizations of cognitive learning (i.e., recall, learning loss, learning indicators) and affective outcomes (i.e., affective learning, state motivation, student satisfaction) were investigated in light of these criticisms. Students in the high nonverbal/high verbal immediacy condition performed significantly better on a recall test, accounting for 8% of the variance. However, no differences in perceived learning outcomes (i.e., learning loss, learning indicators, affective learning, state motivation, student satisfaction) were observed as a result of nonverbal or verbal immediacy manipulation. Additionally, all perceived learning outcomes were correlated with one another while recall scores were uncorrelated. (Contains 2 tables and 2 notes.)
University of Houston, College of Education. 442 Farish Hall, Houston, TX 77204-5026. Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: Higher Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A