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ERIC Number: EJ899198
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2007-May
Pages: 9
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: 29
ISSN: ISSN-1058-0360
Tongue Measures in Individuals with Normal and Impaired Swallowing
Stierwalt, Julie A. G.; Youmans, Scott R.
American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, v16 n2 p148-156 May 2007
Purpose: This investigation sought to add to the extant literature on measures of normal tongue function, to provide information on measures of tongue function in a group of individuals with oral phase dysphagia, and to provide a comparison of these 2 groups matched for age and gender. Method: The Iowa Oral Performance Instrument was utilized to measure tongue function (strength and endurance) in a group of individuals with normal (N = 200) and impaired (N = 50) swallowing. The peak measure of 3 encouraged trials was recorded as participants' strength, and 50% of their peak was sustained as long as possible for endurance. Results: Results for the control group supported previous investigations wherein greater tongue strength was found in males than in females and in the youngest versus oldest groups. The experimental group demonstrated a similar trend in strength for gender. When matched for age and gender, the experimental group demonstrated significantly lower strength. Significant differences were not revealed on measures of tongue endurance. Conclusions: We were able to extend the normative database on tongue function and document reduced tongue strength in a group of individuals with dysphagia. The findings provide evidence that in this group, tongue weakness coincided with signs of dysphagia, adding justification for tongue-strengthening protocols. (Contains 5 tables and 3 figures.)
American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA). 10801 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD 20852. Tel: 800-638-8255; Fax: 301-571-0457; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Evaluative
Education Level: Adult Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: Iowa