NotesFAQContact Us
Search Tips
Peer reviewed Peer reviewed
Direct linkDirect link
ERIC Number: EJ896709
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2008-Dec
Pages: 33
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: 174
ISSN: ISSN-0034-6543
Instructional Interventions Affecting Critical Thinking Skills and Dispositions: A Stage 1 Meta-Analysis
Abrami, Philip C.; Bernard, Robert M.; Borokhovski, Evgueni; Wade, Anne; Surkes, Michael A.; Tamim, Rana; Zhang, Dai
Review of Educational Research, v78 n4 p1102-1134 Dec 2008
Critical thinking (CT), or the ability to engage in purposeful, self-regulatory judgment, is widely recognized as an important, even essential, skill. This article describes an ongoing meta-analysis that summarizes the available empirical evidence on the impact of instruction on the development and enhancement of critical thinking skills and dispositions. We found 117 studies based on 20,698 participants, which yielded 161 effects with an average effect size (g+) of 0.341 and a standard deviation of 0.610. The distribution was highly heterogeneous (Q[subscript T] = 1,767.86, p less than 0.001). There was, however, little variation due to research design, so we neither separated studies according to their methodological quality nor used any statistical adjustment for the corresponding effect sizes. Type of CT intervention and pedagogical grounding were substantially related to fluctuations in CT effects sizes, together accounting for 32% of the variance. These findings make it clear that improvement in students' CT skills and dispositions cannot be a matter of implicit expectation. As important as the development of CT skills is considered to be, educators must take steps to make CT objectives explicit in courses and also to include them in both preservice and in-service training and faculty development. (Contains 1 note, 17 tables, and 1 figure.)
SAGE Publications. 2455 Teller Road, Thousand Oaks, CA 91320. Tel: 800-818-7243; Tel: 805-499-9774; Fax: 800-583-2665; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A