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ERIC Number: EJ894041
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2008-May
Pages: 18
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: 60
ISSN: ISSN-1058-0360
Expected Test Scores for Preschoolers with a Cochlear Implant Who Use Spoken Language
Nicholas, Johanna G.; Geers, Ann E.
American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, v17 n2 p121-138 May 2008
Purpose: The major purpose of this study was to provide information about expected spoken language skills of preschool-age children who are deaf and who use a cochlear implant. A goal was to provide "benchmarks" against which those skills could be compared, for a given age at implantation. We also examined whether parent-completed checklists of children's language were correlated with results of standardized language tests and whether scores increased linearly with decreasing age of implantation and increasing duration of cochlear implant use. Method: Participants were a nationwide sample of 76 children who were deaf and orally educated and who received an implant by 38 months of age. Formal language tests were administered at age 4.5 years. The MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories (CDI) instrument was completed by parents when children were ages 3.5 and 4.5 years. Results: Based on regression analyses, expected scores for each age at implant were provided for 2 commonly administered language tests at 4.5 years of age and CDI subscale scores at 3.5 and 4.5 years. Concurrent test scores were significantly correlated on all measures. A linear relation was found that predicted increasing test scores with younger ages at implantation for all scales administered. Conclusions: While the expected scores reported here should not be considered as normative data, they are benchmarks that may be useful for evaluating spoken language progress of children with cochlear implants who are enrolled in spoken language-based programs. (Contains 7 tables and 3 figures.)
American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA). 10801 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD 20852. Tel: 800-638-8255; Fax: 301-571-0457; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: Early Childhood Education; Preschool Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: Canada; United States
Identifiers - Assessments and Surveys: MacArthur Communicative Development Inventory; Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test; Preschool Language Scale; Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales