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ERIC Number: EJ893228
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2010-Aug
Pages: 14
Abstractor: As Provided
ISSN: ISSN-0013-1911
Democracy and Education in Pakistan
Nazir, Muhammad
Educational Review, v62 n3 p329-342 Aug 2010
This paper explores the potential for democratic change in educational practice in Pakistan. Using focus group discussions in urban and rural areas of Sindh and Balochistan, it builds up a picture of educational practices from policy-making to implementation level and identifies the barriers to democratic approaches in education. It suggests that educational practice in Pakistan is characterised by authoritarian and bureaucratic inaction, and collaboration and reflection play little part in decision-making. A "transmission model" is delivered from policy-makers to implementers who replicate it at pedagogical level, and little account is taken of participatory and democratic approaches to education. International literature on democratic approaches to education and on the potential of education to be democratic and to develop democracy in society is explored as a background to the study. (Contains 1 table.)
Routledge. Available from: Taylor & Francis, Ltd. 325 Chestnut Street Suite 800, Philadelphia, PA 19106. Tel: 800-354-1420; Fax: 215-625-2940; Web site:
Publication Type: Information Analyses; Journal Articles; Reports - Evaluative
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: Pakistan