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ERIC Number: EJ892645
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2010-Aug
Pages: 17
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: 62
ISSN: ISSN-0022-0663
Listening Comprehension, Oral Expression, Reading Comprehension, and Written Expression: Related yet Unique Language Systems in Grades 1, 3, 5, and 7
Berninger, Virginia W.; Abbott, Robert D.
Journal of Educational Psychology, v102 n3 p635-651 Aug 2010
Age-normed tests of listening comprehension, oral expression, reading comprehension, and written expression were administered in Grades 1 (n = 128), 3, and 5, or 3 (n = 113), 5, and 7. Confirmatory factor analyses compared 1- and 4-factor models at each grade level and supported a 4-factor model of language by ear, mouth, eye, and hand. Multiple regressions identified which of the 3 other language skills explained unique variance in each of the 4 language skill outcomes and provided additional evidence that language is not a single skill. Individuals' ipsative scores (amount that the standard score for age on each language measure deviated from individual's mean for all 4 measures) showed that 25% to 30% of individuals showed relative strengths or weaknesses ([plus or minus]1 SD) in specific language skills, but only 7% were stable across Grades 3 and 5. Findings are discussed in reference to (a) theoretical implications for idea comprehension and expression via language by ear, mouth, eye, and hand; and (b) educational applications of observed developmental and individual differences for general, special, and gifted education. (Contains 2 footnotes and 12 tables.)
American Psychological Association. Journals Department, 750 First Street NE, Washington, DC 20002-4242. Tel: 800-374-2721; Tel: 202-336-5510; Fax: 202-336-5502; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: Grade 1; Grade 3; Grade 5; Grade 7
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: United States