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ERIC Number: EJ891472
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2005-Nov
Pages: 26
Abstractor: ERIC
Reference Count: N/A
ISSN: ISSN-1085-4568
India's Modern Slaves: Bonded Labor in India and Methods of Intervention
Boutros, Heidi
Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, v12 p1-26 Nov 2005
Slavery flourishes in the modern world. In nations plagued by debilitating poverty, individuals unable to afford food, clothing, and shelter may be compelled to make a devastating decision: to sell themselves or their children into slavery. Nowhere in the world is this more common than India. Conservative estimates suggest that there are 10 million bonded child slaves in India alone. Bonded slavery refers to the situation in which a debtor is forced to work exclusively for a creditor in order to repay an advance. There are additional characteristics that are commonly associated with bonded labor but are not essential to its definition. For example, bonded slaves are generally forced to work long hours for six or seven days per week. They frequently receive wages well below those of workers in the same industry who have not taken an advance. This paper discusses India's domestic laws criminalizing bonded labor, its entry into some numerous international agreements regarding bonded slavery, and the four elements of effective bonded labor intervention. (Contains 64 notes.)
Frontiers Journal. Dickinson College P.O. Box 1773, Carlisle, PA 17013. Tel: 717-254-8858; Fax: 717-245-1677; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Descriptive
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: India