ERIC Number: EJ889576
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2010
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: 77
Neuropathology and Structural Changes in Hydrocephalus
Del Bigio, Marc R.
Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews, v16 n1 p16-22 2010
In the context of spina bifida, hydrocephalus is usually caused by crowding of the posterior fossa with obstruction to cerebrospinal fluid flow from the forth ventricle, and less often by malformation of the cerebral aqueduct. Enlargement of the cerebral ventricles causes gradual destruction of periventricular white matter axons. Motor, sensory, visual, and memory systems may be disturbed through involvement of the long projection axons, periventricular structures including the corpus callosum, and the fimbria-fornix pathway. Secondary changes occur in neuronal cell bodies and synapses, but there is minimal death of neurons. The clinical syndrome of hydrocephalic brain dysfunction is thus due to subcortical disconnection. Some of the brain dysfunction is reversible by shunting, probably through restoration of cerebral blood flow and normalization of the extracellular environment. However, destroyed axons cannot be restored.
Descriptors: Congenital Impairments, Neurological Impairments, Brain, Human Body, Disabilities, Neurological Organization, Brain Hemisphere Functions
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Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A