NotesFAQContact Us
Search Tips
Peer reviewed Peer reviewed
Direct linkDirect link
ERIC Number: EJ886745
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2010-Jul
Pages: 19
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: 40
ISSN: ISSN-1367-0050
The Long-Term Impact of Subtractive Schooling in the Educational Experiences of Secondary English Language Learners
Menken, Kate; Kleyn, Tatyana
International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, v13 n4 p399-417 Jul 2010
This study examines a lesser-known population of students, called "long-term English language learners" (LTELLs) in the USA, who now comprise one-third of all English language learners in New York City secondary schools. A major finding from our research, which explores the characteristics and educational needs of this student population, is that the students' prior schooling has been subtractive, posing significant challenges for their academic literacy acquisition. Having attended school in the USA for seven years or more, LTELLs have experienced programming that has not provided sufficient opportunities to fully develop their native language literacy skills, in spite of research which states that such opportunities are correlated with school success. LTELLs thus arrive in high school with limited academic literacy in English or their native languages, in spite of their oral bilingualism, posing difficulties for them in all subject areas. As part of a three-year research project, we conducted qualitative research in three New York City high schools. This article draws upon interview data and document analyses to describe the interconnection between the students' schooling experiences, language usage, and current academic challenges. We provide suggestions for how programming can be designed to address the needs of this often overlooked student population. (Contains 17 notes.)
Routledge. Available from: Taylor & Francis, Ltd. 325 Chestnut Street Suite 800, Philadelphia, PA 19106. Tel: 800-354-1420; Fax: 215-625-2940; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: High Schools; Secondary Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: New York