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ERIC Number: EJ886223
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2010
Pages: 4
Abstractor: ERIC
Reference Count: 35
ISSN: ISSN-0164-775X
RTI and SWPBIS: Confronting the Problem of Disproportionality
McKinney, Edward; Bartholomew, Charles; Gray, LaReasa
Communique, v38 n6 p1, 26, 28-29 Mar-Apr 2010
Disproportionality is considered to be an issue of equity and access in general and special education and refers to "the extent to which membership in a given group affects the probability of being placed in a specific disability category." For instance, overrepresented groups are disproportionately affected by negative consequences associated with special education labeling and placement, including stigmatization, lowered expectations, substandard instruction, and less rigorous curricula, as well as isolation from the educational and social curricula of general education. In addition to these issues, the effectiveness of special education has been questioned. With increased research efforts and litigation, some progress has been made in addressing the lack of effects shown for special education. However, problems such as nonaccountability for student outcomes, misdirected focus on service delivery, focus on placement instead of interventions and outcomes, and the persistent gap between what has shown to be effective in research and what is commonly done in practice still remain. This article discusses the response to intervention (RTI) and school-wide positive behavioral intervention and supports (SWPBIS) initiatives, and how they can be an effective strategy in dealing with disproportionality issues and improving educational outcomes.
National Association of School Psychologists. 4340 East West Highway Suite 402, Bethesda, MD 20814. Tel: 301-657-0270; Fax: 301-657-0275; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Descriptive
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A