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ERIC Number: EJ884794
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2010-Apr
Pages: 32
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: 126
ISSN: ISSN-0033-295X
Representational Constraints on the Development of Memory and Metamemory: A Developmental-Representational Theory
Ceci, Stephen J.; Fitneva, Stanka A.; Williams, Wendy M.
Psychological Review, v117 n2 p464-495 Apr 2010
Traditional accounts of memory development suggest that maturation of prefrontal cortex (PFC) enables efficient metamemory, which enhances memory. An alternative theory is described, in which changes in early memory and metamemory are mediated by representational changes, independent of PFC maturation. In a pilot study and Experiment 1, younger children failed to recognize previously presented pictures, yet the children could identify the context in which they occurred, suggesting these failures resulted from inefficient metamemory. Older children seldom exhibited such failure. Experiment 2 established that this was not due to retrieval-time recoding. Experiment 3 suggested that young children's representation of a picture's attributes explained their metamemory failure. Experiment 4 demonstrated that metamemory is age-invariant when representational quality is controlled: When stimuli were equivalently represented, age differences in memory and metamemory declined. These findings do not support the traditional view that as children develop, neural maturation permits more efficient monitoring, which leads to improved memory. These findings support a theory based on developmental-representational synthesis, in which constraints on metamemory are independent of neurological development; representational features drive early memory to a greater extent than previously acknowledged, suggesting that neural maturation has been overimputed as a source of early metamemory and memory failure. (Contains 6 footnotes, 6 tables, and 4 figures.)
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Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A