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ERIC Number: EJ883868
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2009
Pages: 26
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: 55
ISSN: ISSN-1033-2170
Structuring Numbers 1 to 20: Developing Facile Addition and Subtraction
Ellemor-Collins, David; Wright, Robert
Mathematics Education Research Journal, v21 n2 p50-75 2009
The Numeracy Intervention Research Project (NIRP) aims to develop assessment and instructional tools for use with low-attaining 3rd- and 4th-graders. The NIRP approach to instruction in addition and subtraction in the range 1 to 20 is described. The approach is based on a notion of structuring numbers, which draws on the work of Freudenthal and the Realistic Mathematics Education program. NIRP involved 25 teachers and 300 students, 200 of whom participated in an intervention program of approximately thirty 25-minute lessons over 10 weeks. Data is drawn from case studies of two intervention students who made significant progress toward facile addition and subtraction. Pre- and post-assessment interviews and five lesson episodes are described, and data drawn from the activity of the students during the episodes are analysed. The discussion develops a detailed account of the progression of students' learning of structuring numbers, and how this can result in significant level-raising of students' arithmetical knowledge as it becomes more formalised and less context-dependent. (Contains 1 footnote.)
Mathematics Education Research Group of Australasia. GPO Box 2747, Adelaide SA 5001, Australia. Tel: +61-8-8363-0288; Fax: +61-8-8362-9288; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Evaluative
Education Level: Elementary Education; Grade 3; Grade 4
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: Australia