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ERIC Number: EJ882170
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2009
Pages: 30
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: 156
ISSN: ISSN-1539-4352
Comparison of the Relative Effectiveness of Different Kinds of Reinforcers: A PEM Approach
Ma, Hsen-Hsing
Behavior Analyst Today, v10 n3-4 p398-427 2009
The purpose of the present study was to apply the percentage of data points exceeding the median of baseline phase (PEM) approach for a meta-analysis of single-case experiments to compare the relative effectiveness of different kinds of reinforcers used in behavior modification. Altogether 153 studies were located, which produced 1091 effect sizes. The grand mean of the 153 PEM scores was 0.92. The main finding was that among the positive reinforcers, "activities" was the most effective (PEM score = 0.95) while "objects" and "edibles" were relatively less effective (PEM score = 0.85 and 0.83, respectively). The results of the present study are of importance in respect to the choice of reinforcer for use in intervention in behavior modification. (Contains 1 figure and 1 table.)
Joseph Cautilli, Ph.D. & The Behavior Analyst Online Organization. 535 Queen Street, Philadelphia, PA 19147-3220. Tel: 215-462-6737; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Evaluative
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A