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ERIC Number: EJ878530
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2010-Mar
Pages: 13
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: 74
ISSN: ISSN-0278-7393
Similarities and Differences between Working Memory and Long-Term Memory: Evidence from the Levels-of-Processing Span Task
Rose, Nathan S.; Myerson, Joel; Roediger, Henry L., III; Hale, Sandra
Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, v36 n2 p471-483 Mar 2010
Two experiments compared the effects of depth of processing on working memory (WM) and long-term memory (LTM) using a levels-of-processing (LOP) span task, a newly developed WM span procedure that involves processing to-be-remembered words based on their visual, phonological, or semantic characteristics. Depth of processing had minimal effect on WM tests, yet subsequent memory for the same items on delayed tests showed the typical benefits of semantic processing. Although the difference in LOP effects demonstrates a dissociation between WM and LTM, we also found that the retrieval practice provided by recalling words on the WM task benefited long-term retention, especially for words initially recalled from supraspan lists. The latter result is consistent with the hypothesis that WM span tasks involve retrieval from secondary memory, but the LOP dissociation suggests the processes engaged by WM and LTM tests may differ. Therefore, similarities and differences between WM and LTM depend on the extent to which retrieval from secondary memory is involved and whether there is a match (or mismatch) between initial processing and subsequent retrieval, consistent with transfer-appropriate-processing theory. (Contains 2 tables, 4 figures, and 1 footnote.)
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Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: Higher Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: Washington