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ERIC Number: EJ876672
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2010-Mar
Pages: 17
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: N/A
ISSN: ISSN-1040-726X
Personalizing e-Learning. The Social Effects of Pedagogical Agents
Kramer, Nicole C.; Bente, Gary
Educational Psychology Review, v22 n1 p71-87 Mar 2010
Numerous studies have evaluated the effects of pedagogical agents on students' learning outcomes, but so far, beneficial effects have not been consistently demonstrated. The ambiguous results might partly be due to the strong emphasis on cognitive outcomes, which is characteristic for research in teaching and learning. The paper suggests a shift of attention to socio-emotional and relational variables, which might be considered as relevant moderator variables in learning or even as learning outcomes per se, for example, in social learning. In order to achieve this goal, we suggest a systematic account of the results from social psychology and in particular from nonverbal communication research, and findings from studies on the social effects of embodied agents in general. This perspective will include (1) a distinction between static and dynamic aspects of embodiment, such as the visual appearance of agents and their nonverbal behavior, and (2) a more systematic approach concerning the functions of embodiment and nonverbal behavior, such as modeling, discourse and dialogue functions, and socio-emotional effects. A further argument addresses the necessity of complementing outcome measures by process measures, which are sensitive to the tasks and the changing situational demands that occur during learning processes and tutor-learner interaction.
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Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Evaluative
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A