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ERIC Number: EJ875853
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2009
Pages: 9
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: 39
ISSN: ISSN-1059-8405
Dysfunctional Elimination Behaviors and Associated Complications in School-Age Children
Kistner, Mary
Journal of School Nursing, v25 n2 p108-116 2009
Lack of privacy, risk of bullying, limited access, lack of essential products for good hygiene, and dirty bathrooms can all contribute to encouraging a child to withhold urine and stool while in school. Withholding behaviors over time can create a condition known as dysfunctional elimination syndrome (DES). DES is any pattern of voiding or stooling that varies from the developmental norm. These abnormal patterns of elimination can eventually lead to complications of urinary tract infection, vesicoureteral reflux, and incontinence of urine and/or stool. School officials (teachers, school nurses, and school administrators) can help in the prevention of learned behaviors that lead to DES in school-age children. School officials need to realize children are individuals and should not be expected to empty their bowels and bladders according to a set, rigid schedule. In addition, school officials should not expect children to use dirty, unsafe bathrooms that they themselves would not tolerate. School nurses can be a powerful force in protecting children's health by participating in research and developing evidence-based guidelines to improve bathroom access and conditions.
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Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Descriptive
Education Level: Elementary Secondary Education
Audience: Support Staff
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A