NotesFAQContact Us
Search Tips
Peer reviewed Peer reviewed
Direct linkDirect link
ERIC Number: EJ875269
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2010
Pages: 4
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: 7
ISSN: ISSN-0016-9862
Dealing with Dependence (Part I): Understanding the Effects of Clustered Data
McCoach, D. Betsy; Adelson, Jill L.
Gifted Child Quarterly, v54 n2 p152-155 2010
This article provides a conceptual introduction to the issues surrounding the analysis of clustered (nested) data. We define the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and the design effect, and we explain their effect on the standard error. When the ICC is greater than 0, then the design effect is greater than 1. In such a scenario, the standard error produced under the assumption of independence is underestimated. This increases the Type I error rate. We provide a short illustration of the effect of non-independence on the standard error. We show that after accounting for the design effect, our decision about the statistical significance of the test statistic changes. When we fail to account for the clustered nature of the data, we conclude that the difference between the two groups is statistically significant. However, once we adjust the standard error for the design effect, the difference is no longer statistically significant. (Contains 1 note and 1 figure.)
SAGE Publications. 2455 Teller Road, Thousand Oaks, CA 91320. Tel: 800-818-7243; Tel: 805-499-9774; Fax: 800-583-2665; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Descriptive
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A