NotesFAQContact Us
Search Tips
Peer reviewed Peer reviewed
Direct linkDirect link
ERIC Number: EJ874890
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2010-Mar
Pages: 20
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: N/A
ISSN: ISSN-1381-2890
The Peer Interaction in Primary School Questionnaire: Testing for Measurement Equivalence and Latent Mean Differences in Bullying between Gender in Egypt, Saudi Arabia and the USA
Hussein, Mohamed Habashy
Social Psychology of Education: An International Journal, v13 n1 p57-76 Mar 2010
The Peer Interaction in Primary School Questionnaire (PIPSQ) was developed to assess individuals' levels of bullying and victimization. This study used the approach of latent means analysis (LMA) within the framework of structural equation modeling (SEM) to explore the factor structure and gender differences associated with the PIPSQ in a sample of Egyptian (N = 361), Saudi Arabian (N = 350) and USA (270) children. Results of the confirmatory factor analysis are consistent with previous work and support the cross-cultural validity of the PIPSQ factor structure. The PIPSQ factor loadings were invariant across Egyptian and Saudi samples, whereas only partial invariance was met between Egyptian or Saudi samples and the USA sample. Full measurement invariance was met between gender within the three cultures, that is the PIPSQ was useful to compare bullying and victims between gender within the three cultures, but it is only valid to compare those two constructs between Egyptian and Saudi boys and girls. The results indicated that Egyptian and Saudi boys/girls had a higher level of bullying than American boys/girls, whereas no differences were displayed among the three cultures on the victimization subscale. Boys had a higher level of bullying than girls in the three cultures, and boys and girls had a similar level of victimization in three cultures.
Springer. 233 Spring Street, New York, NY 10013. Tel: 800-777-4643; Tel: 212-460-1500; Fax: 212-348-4505; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: Elementary Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: Egypt; Saudi Arabia