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ERIC Number: EJ871430
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2010-Jan
Pages: 16
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: 69
ISSN: ISSN-0278-7393
Learning from Feedback: Spacing and the Delay-Retention Effect
Smith, Troy A.; Kimball, Daniel R.
Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, v36 n1 p80-95 Jan 2010
Most modern research on the effects of feedback during learning has assumed that feedback is an error correction mechanism. Recent studies of feedback-timing effects have suggested that feedback might also strengthen initially correct responses. In an experiment involving cued recall of trivia facts, we directly tested several theories of feedback-timing effects and also examined the effects of restudy and retest trials following immediate and delayed feedback. Results were not consistent with theories assuming that the only function of feedback is to correct initial errors but instead supported a theoretical account assuming that delaying feedback strengthens initially correct responses due to the spacing of encoding opportunities: Delaying feedback increased the probability of correct response perseveration on the final retention test but had minimal effects on error correction or error perseveration probabilities. In a 2nd experiment, the effects of varying the lags between study, test, and feedback trials during learning provided further support for the spacing hypothesis. (Contains 3 footnotes, 4 table, and 5 figures.)
American Psychological Association. Journals Department, 750 First Street NE, Washington, DC 20002-4242. Tel: 800-374-2721; Tel: 202-336-5510; Fax: 202-336-5502; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: Higher Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: Oklahoma; Texas