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ERIC Number: EJ867498
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2009
Pages: 19
Abstractor: As Provided
ISSN: ISSN-0731-9487
Comparison of Pen and Keyboard Transcription Modes in Children with and without Learning Disabilities
Berninger, Virginia W.; Abbott, Robert D.; Augsburger, Amy; Garcia, Noelia
Learning Disability Quarterly, v32 n3 p123-141 Sum 2009
Fourth graders with learning disabilities in transcription (handwriting and spelling), LD-TD, and without LD-TD (non-LD), were compared on three writing tasks (letters, sentences, and essays), which differed by level of language, when writing by pen and by keyboard. The two groups did not differ significantly in Verbal IQ but did in handwriting, spelling, and composing achievement. Although LD-TD and non-LD groups did not differ in total time for producing letters by pen or keyboard, both groups took longer to compose sentences and essays by keyboard than by pen. Students in both groups tended to show the same pattern of results for amount written as a larger sample of typically developing fourth graders who composed longer essays by pen. Results for that sample, which also included typically developing second and sixth graders, showed that effects of transcription mode vary with level of language and within level of language by grade level for letters and sentences. However, consistently from second to fourth to sixth grade, children wrote longer essays with faster word production rate by pen than by keyboard. In addition, fourth and sixth graders wrote more complete sentences when writing by pen than by keyboard, and this relative advantage for sentence composing in text was not affected by spelling ability. Implications of the results for using computers for accommodations or specialized instruction for students with LD-TD are discussed. (Contains 5 tables and 4 notes.)
Council for Learning Disabilities. P.O. Box 4014, Leesburg, VA 20177. Tel: 571-258-1010; Fax: 571-258-1011; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Evaluative
Education Level: Elementary Education; Grade 2; Grade 4; Grade 6
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Grant or Contract Numbers: N/A