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ERIC Number: EJ866929
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2009
Pages: 20
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: 76
ISSN: ISSN-0162-3737
Quality of Research Design Moderates Effects of Grade Retention on Achievement: A Meta-Analytic, Multilevel Analysis
Allen, Chiharu S.; Chen, Qi; Willson, Victor L.; Hughes, Jan N.
Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, v31 n4 p480-499 2009
The present meta-analysis examines the effect of grade retention on academic outcomes and investigates systemic sources of variability in effect sizes. Using multilevel modeling (MLM), the authors investigate characteristics of 207 effect sizes across 22 studies published between 1990 and 2007 at two levels: the study (between) and individual (within) levels. Design quality is a study-level variable. Individual-level variables are median grade retained and median number of years postretention. Quality of design is associated with less negative effects. Years postretention is negatively associated with retention effects, and this effect is stronger for studies using grade comparisons versus age comparisons. The results challenge the widely held view that retention has a negative impact on achievement. Suggestions for future research are discussed. (Contains 4 tables and 4 notes.)
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Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: Adult Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A