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ERIC Number: EJ863701
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2009
Pages: 18
Abstractor: ERIC
Reference Count: 64
ISSN: ISSN-1535-0584
Military Drill in the Service of American Hegemony over Hawaii
Beyer, C. Kalani
American Educational History Journal, v36 n2 p395-412 2009
Recently, there has been an interest in investigating who have historically served in the American military, particularly during periods of war. These studies report that men from lower socio-economic groups tend to be over represented in military service, especially after voluntary service replaced the draft during the 1970s. Much work remains to be done to determine who the groups were and explain why some groups served more than others. This study focuses on one group (Native Hawaiians and Asians from Hawaii) who have, since World War I, had high levels of military service and explores how this non-white group was historically prepared to become warriors in the American military. This study links the over-representation of military drill in the form of mandatory Reserved Officers Training Corps (ROTC) in the high schools on the island of Oahu to the extension of an American hegemony. This article seeks to demonstrate that from 1888 to the end of World War II after two periods of spreading an American hegemony, the descendents of the earlier dominant class utilized military drill in the form of ROTC to protect and extend the hegemony that was achieved during most of the nineteenth century. It is the contention of this article that hegemony was expanded by imposing ROTC on two groups of high school students on the island of Oahu. On the one hand, it was used to ensure the patriotism to the United States of the largely non-white public high school student population. On the other hand, in order to ensure continual dominance by their class, it was used to prepare white private high school students to become leaders. By the time the mandatory rule of participation was dropped in the 1960s, the use of ROTC to service hegemony was altered by a new dominant class from its earlier goals to ensuring the continual support of the military in Hawaii by all citizens. This article is primarily concerned with the third period of hegemony, which occurred after Hawaii was organized as a Territory of the United States. After annexation, due to the needs of the plantation economy, Hawaii became a land mainly populated by immigrants from Asia. Hawaiians had protested overthrowing their monarch but due to the continual decline of the Native population, their opposition to the dominant faction was minimal during the twentieth century. Based upon the success in Americanizing Native Hawaiians during the late nineteenth century, the task at hand was to replicate the process with Asian immigrants during the twentieth century.
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Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Descriptive
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: Hawaii; United States