NotesFAQContact Us
Search Tips
Peer reviewed Peer reviewed
Direct linkDirect link
ERIC Number: EJ863402
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2009
Pages: 7
Abstractor: ERIC
Reference Count: 7
ISSN: ISSN-1534-8458
Indigenous Youth Bilingualism from a Hawaiian Activist Perspective
Wilson, William H.; Kamana, Kauanoe
Journal of Language, Identity, and Education, v8 n5 p369-375 2009
Hawai'i's massive language shift began a century ago. In the late 1800s, everyone spoke Hawaiian, but being monolingual in Hawaiian marked one as unsophisticated. Then Hawaiian medium schools were banned, resulting in young people speaking Hawaiian with adults and Hawai'i Creole English with peers. The next generation could understand, but not speak Hawaiian. Finally, the generation born in the 1940s through 1960s sometimes heard elders speaking Hawaiian but knew very little of it beyond a few words and phrases. Yet, today, as the result of a language revitalization movement that began in the 1970s and 1980s, many young people speak Hawaiian fluently. Increasing numbers are raising their children with Hawaiian as the first language of the home. In this commentary, the authors describe how youth who learn Hawaiian become socialized into speaking it as their peer language. They begin by discussing 4 major themes: (1) Diversity in linguistically healthy and unhealthy indigenous communities; (2) Cultural identity and indigenous languages; (3) Maintaining bonds between person, location, and language; and (4) The role of schools in language life and death.
Routledge. Available from: Taylor & Francis, Ltd. 325 Chestnut Street Suite 800, Philadelphia, PA 19106. Tel: 800-354-1420; Fax: 215-625-2940; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Descriptive
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: Hawaii