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ERIC Number: EJ863197
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2009-Dec
Pages: 4
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: 13
ISSN: ISSN-0021-9584
Emphasizing Multiple Levels of Representation to Enhance Students' Understandings of the Changes Occurring during Chemical Reactions
Chandrasegaran, A. L.; Treagust, David F.; Mocerino, Mauro
Journal of Chemical Education, v86 n12 p1433-1436 Dec 2009
An alternative program of instruction was implemented with 33 high-achieving Grade 9 students (15-16 years old) in Singapore that overtly focused on the use of macroscopic, submicroscopic, and symbolic representations to describe and explain the changes that occurred during the burning of metals, reactions of dilute acids, ionic precipitations, and metal ion displacement reactions. Students' understandings of the use of multiple levels of representation were evaluated at the end of nine months of instruction using a previously developed 15-item, two-tier, multiple-choice diagnostic instrument. In several instances the students displayed much better understanding of the three systems of representation than 44 students from another higher-achieving Grade 9 class who were taught with the regular instructional program that did not emphasize use of multiple levels of representation. Comparison of the mean diagnostic test scores of students from the two classes indicated that the high-achieving class in the treatment group that experienced the alternative program of instruction performed significantly better than the higher-achieving class from the comparison group that experienced the regular program of instruction, further validating the efficacy of the alternative instructional program. (Contains 1 table and 1 figure.)
Division of Chemical Education of the American Chemical Society. Subscription Department, P.O. Box 1267, Bellmawr, NJ 08099-1267. Tel: 800-691-9846; Tel: 856-931-5825; Fax: 856-931-4115; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: Grade 9
Audience: Teachers
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: Singapore