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ERIC Number: EJ860906
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2009-Nov
Pages: 16
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: 67
ISSN: ISSN-0022-0663
Development and Validation of a Measure of Academic Entitlement: Individual Differences in Students' Externalized Responsibility and Entitled Expectations
Chowning, Karolyn; Campbell, Nicole Judice
Journal of Educational Psychology, v101 n4 p982-997 Nov 2009
Four studies present the validation of a self-report scale capturing "academic entitlement," which is defined as the tendency to possess an expectation of academic success without a sense of personal responsibility for achieving that success. The Academic Entitlement scale possesses a 2-factor structure (Study 1); 10 items measure students' Externalized Responsibility for their academic success, and 5 items measure students' self-serving Entitled Expectations about professors and course policies. In Study 2, the Externalized Responsibility subscale correlated positively with related measures of entitlement, grandiosity, and narcissism, and it was negatively related to self-esteem, personal control, need for cognition, agreeableness, and conscientiousness. In Study 3, participants rated various responses to academic situations selected by university instructors as highly inappropriate or highly appropriate. The Academic Entitlement scale predicted students' ratings of the appropriateness of these student behaviors as well as the likelihood that they themselves would engage in these behaviors. In a laboratory setting, individuals with high Academic Entitlement scores evaluated the researcher more negatively than those with low Academic Entitlement scores (Study 4). Practical applications are discussed. (Contains 6 tables and 7 footnotes.)
American Psychological Association. Journals Department, 750 First Street NE, Washington, DC 20002-4242. Tel: 800-374-2721; Tel: 202-336-5510; Fax: 202-336-5502; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: Higher Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A