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ERIC Number: EJ857023
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2009
Pages: 21
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: 35
ISSN: ISSN-1070-5511
A Two-Stage Approach to Missing Data: Theory and Application to Auxiliary Variables
Savalei, Victoria; Bentler, Peter M.
Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, v16 n3 p477-497 2009
A well-known ad-hoc approach to conducting structural equation modeling with missing data is to obtain a saturated maximum likelihood (ML) estimate of the population covariance matrix and then to use this estimate in the complete data ML fitting function to obtain parameter estimates. This 2-stage (TS) approach is appealing because it minimizes a familiar function while being only marginally less efficient than the full information ML (FIML) approach. Additional advantages of the TS approach include that it allows for easy incorporation of auxiliary variables and that it is more stable in smaller samples. The main disadvantage is that the standard errors and test statistics provided by the complete data routine will not be correct. Empirical approaches to finding the right corrections for the TS approach have failed to provide unequivocal solutions. In this article, correct standard errors and test statistics for the TS approach with missing completely at random and missing at random normally distributed data are developed and studied. The new TS approach performs well in all conditions, is only marginally less efficient than the FIML approach (and is sometimes more efficient), and has good coverage. Additionally, the residual-based TS statistic outperforms the FIML test statistic in smaller samples. The TS method is thus a viable alternative to FIML, especially in small samples, and its further study is encouraged. (Contains 7 tables and 6 footnotes.)
Psychology Press. Available from: Taylor & Francis, Ltd. 325 Chestnut Street Suite 800, Philadelphia, PA 19106. Tel: 800-354-1420; Fax: 215-625-2940; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Descriptive
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A