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ERIC Number: EJ852668
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2008
Pages: 9
Abstractor: ERIC
Reference Count: 20
ISSN: ISSN-0040-0599
Classwide Secondary and Tertiary Tier Practices and Systems
Fairbanks, Sarah; Simonsen, Brandi; Sugai, George
TEACHING Exceptional Children, v40 n6 p44-52 Jul-Aug 2008
Many present day classroom teachers face greater challenges than perhaps during any time in the past. Teachers are expected to: (a) provide evidence-based instruction to ensure that students make adequate yearly progress under the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB); (b) serve an increasingly diverse group of students including students with disabilities within general education settings; and (c) manage classrooms while creating a safe and effective learning environment. When teaching in classroom settings, working from a three-tiered intervention framework for academics is helpful. Unfortunately, even with high quality implementation of evidence-based practices, some students are not successful with only primary intervention. Many teachers are equipped with skills to differentiate or modify instructional strategies to meet the needs of a diverse group of students. Thus, they have a strategy for working with students who do not respond to primary tier academic intervention. If needed, teachers implement or refer students to targeted groups (secondary tier intervention) or individualized academic supports (tertiary tier intervention). In a social setting, a similar approach is needed to prevent and correct inappropriate social behavior. Schoolwide positive behavior support (SWPBS) provides a primary level of behavior support for students in and out of the classroom. Secondary and tertiary behavior interventions are layered onto primary interventions and are designed to support a range of students with behavioral needs in classroom settings. In order to implement secondary and tertiary tier interventions in the context of SWPBS, evidence must be available to support the recommendation. In SWPBS, secondary tier interventions are introduced to targeted groups of students whose behaviors do not respond to primary tier intervention. Tertiary interventions provide support for students whose behaviors do not respond to secondary intervention or whose behaviors are sufficiently intensive to warrant individualized support. Although secondary and tertiary tier interventions fit best within the context of SWPBS, they can be implemented in the classroom in schools where SWPBS is not in place. This article describes typical features, steps required to implement, and intervention prerequisites for secondary and tertiary intervention systems within classroom settings. Also included is an applied example of incorporating primary, secondary, and tertiary interventions in the classroom. (Contains 4 figures.)
Council for Exceptional Children. 1110 North Glebe Road Suite 300, Arlington, VA 22201. Tel: 888-232-7733; Fax: 703-264-9494; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Descriptive
Education Level: Postsecondary Education; Secondary Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Laws, Policies, & Programs: No Child Left Behind Act 2001