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ERIC Number: EJ849629
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2009-Apr
Pages: 5
Abstractor: ERIC
Reference Count: N/A
ISSN: ISSN-0037-7724
Authentic Intellectual Work on School Desegregation: The Digital History of Massive Resistance in Norfolk, Virginia
Manfra, Meghan McGlinn
Social Education, v73 n3 p131-135 Apr 2009
This year marks the fiftieth anniversary of the integration of Norfolk Public Schools. On February 2, 1959, the "Norfolk 17" integrated the formerly all-white public middle and high schools in Norfolk, Virginia. Less known than their counterparts in Little Rock, Arkansas, the stories of the Norfolk 17 underscore the struggle schools faced after the 1954 "Brown v. Board of Education" decision. A new digital library, "School Desegregation in Norfolk, Virginia," chronicles the Norfolk school crisis ( This collection provides access to authentic digital history resources and multiple perspectives about the history of integration. In this article, the author provides an overview of the digitized resources that make up the collection and teaching suggestions for integrating them into the classroom using the criteria for authentic intellectual work. According to Scheurman and Newmann, "Authentic intellectual achievement consists of more than the ability to do well on an academic test. It involves the application of knowledge (facts, concepts, theories, and insights) to questions and issues within a particular domain." Authentic intellectual work frames student learning around significant historical issues and discipline-based learning. The three criteria of authentic intellectual work--construction of new knowledge, disciplined inquiry, and value beyond school--operate in concert. Construction of deep knowledge occurs as students engage in disciplined inquiry; disciplined inquiry derives from historical questions relevant beyond the world of school. (Contains 3 figures and 19 notes.)
National Council for the Social Studies. 8555 Sixteenth Street #500, Silver Spring, MD 20910. Tel: 800-683-0812; Tel: 301-588-1800; Fax: 301-588-2049; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Descriptive
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: Virginia