NotesFAQContact Us
Search Tips
Peer reviewed Peer reviewed
Direct linkDirect link
ERIC Number: EJ848701
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2004
Pages: 15
Abstractor: ERIC
Reference Count: 43
ISSN: ISSN-1056-7879
The Organization and Administration of Special Services: Variations, Tensions, and Possibilities
Doyle, Lynn H.
International Journal of Educational Reform, v13 n3 p280-294 Sum 2004
Educational administrators are spending considerably more time and effort on issues involving special services for disadvantaged and special needs students than they have in the past. In light of current school improvement initiatives to improve the academic success for all students, it is likely that this will even increase. Passage of No Child Left Behind and changes in the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) indicate Congress's commitment to reform teaching and learning. These laws now mandate that at-risk students and students with disabilities be included in high-stakes testing. Mandates such as these provide not only challenges, but also opportunities for local school districts to look at past practices differently and create new possibilities to restructure teaching and learning. If ever there was a time for administrators to be visionaries who can see new ways to use special services, it is now. The array of special services is vast, and the manner in which these services are organized differs from district to district and from school to school. When discussing special services, educators typically mean those services that fall under three umbrella categories: (a) special education; (b) related services; and (c) pupil services (also called pupil personnel services or student services). Although special education typically refers to the 13 disability areas identified in IDEA, related services and pupil services are less clear. This study explores the organization of special services, their integration with regular education, the profiles of the administrators responsible for special services, and the perceptions of centralized and school administrators that suggest possibilities for change. (Contains 2 tables and 1 figure.)
Rowman & Littlefield Education. 4501 Forbes Boulevard Suite 200, Lanham, MD 20706. Tel: 800-462-6420; Tel: 717-794-3800; Fax: 800-338-4550; Fax: 717-794-3803; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: Elementary Secondary Education
Audience: Administrators
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Laws, Policies, & Programs: Individuals with Disabilities Education Act; No Child Left Behind Act 2001