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ERIC Number: EJ845893
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2005
Pages: 5
Abstractor: ERIC
ISSN: ISSN-1074-2956
Making the Three Ps Easier: Praise, Proximity, and Precorrection
Lampi, Andrea R.; Fenty, Nicole S.; Beaunae, Cathrine
Beyond Behavior, v15 n1 p8-12 Fall 2005
The educational trend toward including students with disabilities in classrooms has been on the rise over the last 30 years. Supporters of inclusion state many expected benefits of inclusion such as: (a) a reduction in the negative feelings toward labeling; (b) an increase in friendships between disabled and nondisabled students; and (c) the opportunity for students with disabilities to learn appropriate classroom behaviors from their peers. Along with the benefits of inclusion comes an unfortunate drawback: an increase in classroom behavior problems (Heflin & Bullock, 1999). Sutherland, Wehby, and Copeland (2000) stated that teachers today are faced with more challenging behaviors than their predecessors in regard to behavior management. Teachers themselves have stated that they are concerned with their ability to meet the needs of students with behavior problems in general education classrooms (Heflin & Bullock, 1999). Many behavior management strategies are available to teachers, but few are proven effective through rigorous empirical research; at the same time, many evidence-based practices are overlooked (Sutherland et al., 2000). Lewis and Bullock (2004) identified four research-based practices that improve social behaviors in students with behavior disorders: (1) teacher praise; (2) high rates of opportunities for students to respond; (3) clear instructional strategies; and (4) positive behavior supports. This paper will specifically address student praise and two types of positive behavior supports: proximity and precorrection. The combined use of praise, proximity, and precorrection can: (1) reduce problem behaviors; (2) prevent the likelihood of recurring problem behaviors; (3) increase academic engagement time; and (4) increase the number of positive interactions between students and teachers. The result is an overall improvement in classroom climate, which is beneficial for both students and teachers.
Council for Children with Behavioral Disorders. Council for Exceptional Children, 1110 North Glebe Road, Arlington, VA 22201-5704. Tel: 612-276-0140; Fax: 612-276-0142; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Descriptive
Education Level: N/A
Audience: Teachers
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Grant or Contract Numbers: N/A