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ERIC Number: EJ845138
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2009-Jul
Pages: 8
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: 0
ISSN: ISSN-0951-0893
Another Breakthrough, Another Baby Thrown out with the Bathwater
Bell, David M.
ELT Journal, v63 n3 p255-262 Jul 2009
"Process-oriented pedagogy: facilitation, empowerment, or control?" claims that process-oriented pedagogy (POP) represents the methodological perspective of most practising teachers and that outcomes-based education (OBE) poses a real and present danger to stakeholder autonomy. Whereas POP may characterize methodological practices in the inner circle primary school context described by Littlewood, it does not fairly characterize practices in most L2 classrooms. Little wood's dichotomy of product and process is better understood in terms of direct and indirect teaching. Effective pedagogy seeks an appropriate balance of direct and indirect teaching in diverse contexts in order to fulfil particular student goals. OBE helps identify and make explicit learning goals and empower students to attain those goals. Raising fears of control and totalitarianism demonizes OBE. We need to accept both OBE and POP as enriching the repertoires of teachers and their ability to respond to the complex and changing needs of their students.
Oxford University Press. Great Clarendon Street, Oxford, OX2 6DP, UK. Tel: +44-1865-353907; Fax: +44-1865-353485; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Descriptive
Education Level: Primary Education
Audience: Teachers
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A