ERIC Number: EJ844441
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2005
Reference Count: 22
Through a Heavy Fog: Public High Schools in Texas for African Americans, 1900-1930
Morowski, Deborah L.; Davis, O. L., Jr.
American Educational History Journal, v32 n2 p183-191 2005
"Race, ethnicity, and poverty are poor excuses for low expectations" (Monroe 1997, 111). Negro educators who forged an academic haven for secondary students in the early twentieth century held as strongly to this belief as did Monroe, an urban Black educator, a century and a half later. Whereas the American high school movement gained momentum in the early twentieth century, public secondary education for Black students in the American South only slowly became available. Less than five percent of the South's Black high school age population was enrolled in a public secondary school in 1910; this percentage had increased to 10 percent by 1930. The Black high school enrollment remained significantly below the national high school enrollment of 47 percent reported by the 1930 National Survey of Secondary Education (Anderson 1988, 187-188). Although elementary education was the primary form of schooling available to Blacks, a slowly increasing number of public high schools for Black students came into existence in the American South. From his 1932 survey, Ambrose Caliver reported 85 public Black high schools operating in Texas, but he did not identify any of them (1932, 25). Relatively little research has been conducted about the state of Negro secondary education in the early twentieth century. This study sought to identify the number and location of Texas' Black public high schools and something about their growth and development between 1900 and 1930. The study is the first in a series that will focus on the history of the secondary education of Blacks in Texas.
Descriptors: African American Students, African American Education, Educational Development, Educational History, School Surveys, School Statistics, Educational Research, Black Studies, High Schools
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Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Evaluative
Education Level: High Schools
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: Texas