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ERIC Number: EJ841698
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2008
Pages: 28
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: 81
ISSN: ISSN-1050-9674
Back to the Future: From Klockars' Model of Effective Supervision to Evidence-Based Practice in Probation
Skeem, Jennifer L.; Manchak, Sarah
Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, v47 n3 p220-247 2008
Three contemporary models of probation supervision can be differentiated, based on the extent to which they focus on protecting community safety (surveillance model), promoting offender rehabilitation (treatment model), or both (hybrid model). Hybrid models combine dual roles of controlling and caring for probationers. A quarter century ago, Klockars (1972) articulated a theory to describe how the "synthetic" officer reconciles these dual roles to achieve a broader base of power for behavior change and more positive outcomes than the "law enforcement" officer or "therapeutic agent." In this article, we apply Klockars' theory to compare modern models of supervision in their (a) theoretical coherence and (b) effectiveness, at both the officer and program level, and for both general probationers and probationers with mental disorder. The weight of the evidence for both types of probationers supports the hybrid model. Going back to Klockar's theory may ultimately inform officers' understanding and adoption of hybrid strategies to more effectively supervise probationers. (Contains 1 figure.)
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Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Assessments and Surveys: Working Alliance Inventory