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ERIC Number: EJ838184
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2009-Apr
Pages: 7
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: 0
ISSN: ISSN-0161-1461
The Effects of a Sound-Field Amplification System on Managerial Time in Middle School Physical Education Settings
Ryan, Stu
Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, v40 n2 p131-137 Apr 2009
Purpose: The focus of this research effort was to examine the effect of a sound-field amplification system on managerial time in the beginning of class in a physical education setting. Method: A multiple baseline design across participants was used to measure change in the managerial time of 2 middle school female physical education teachers using a portable sound-field amplification system. Managerial time is defined as the cumulative amount of time that students spend on organizational, transitional, and nonsubject matter tasks in a lesson. Results: The findings showed that the amount of managerial time at the beginning of class clearly decreased when the teacher used sound-field amplification feedback to physical education students. Conclusion: Findings indicate an immediate need for administrators to determine the most appropriate, cost-effective procedure to support sound-field amplification systems in existing physical education settings.
American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA). 10801 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD 20852. Tel: 800-638-8255; Fax: 301-571-0457; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Evaluative
Education Level: Elementary Secondary Education; Middle Schools
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A