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ERIC Number: EJ835822
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2009
Pages: 23
Abstractor: ERIC
Reference Count: 50
ISSN: ISSN-0161-6463
Negotiating Nacogdoches: Hasinai Caddo-Spanish Relations, Trade Space, and the Formation of the Texas-Louisiana Border, 1779-1819
Goldberg, Mark Allan
American Indian Culture and Research Journal, v33 n1 p65-87 2009
Caddo Indian villages occupied a region along an extensive trade network that stretched well into the North American South and West. Before the Spanish began to clamp down on French traders in their second attempt to establish a presence in East Texas in the 1750's, the Indians of the region had already enjoyed extensive trade relations with the French. Beginning in 1705, the Caddo established trade relations with the French trader Louis Juchereau de St. Denis. St. Denis first traded much-needed guns and ammunition with the Natchitoches Caddo and the Kadohadacho Caddo chiefdoms in return for salt and horses. Later, he lived among the Hasinai Caddo chiefdom for a few months. St. Denis conformed to Caddo trade demands and provided necessary trade goods and, most important, friendship, thus creating a bond between the French and the Hasinai. The strong ties between the French and the Caddo lasted throughout the eighteenth century, undermining Spanish efforts to develop their own trade systems with the Indians. When the Spaniards finally established relations with the Caddo, Spanish traders had to respect Caddo trade traditions and adopt the trading practices that preceded the Spanish fortification of East Texas. By the turn of the nineteenth century, the Hasinai reestablished ties with the Spanish and focused the exchange of goods in East Texas. This renewed trade relationship undermined trade between the Indians and the French Louisianans. With these ties, came new spaces of trade--the Hasinai traded with the Spanish out of Nacogdoches, Texas, and the Kadohadacho continued to trade with the Spanish out of Louisiana. The Hasinai are at the center of the story of change in East Texas during this era. Because this article focuses on Nacogdoches as the main center of trade in the region, it covers the period between the Spanish settlement of the town in 1779 and in 1819, the year that New Spain and the United States signed the Adams-Onis Treaty that formally outlined the Texas-Louisiana border. (Contains 2 figures and 18 notes.
American Indian Studies Center at UCLA. 3220 Campbell Hall, Box 951548, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1548. Tel: 310-825-7315; Fax: 310-206-7060; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Opinion Papers
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: France; Louisiana; Spain; Texas