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ERIC Number: EJ835597
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2006
Pages: 24
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: 0
ISSN: ISSN-0042-8639
Early Literacy in Children with Hearing Loss: A Comparison between Two Educational Systems
Most, Tova; Aram, Dorit; Andorn, Tamar
Volta Review, v106 n1 p5-28 Spr 2006
The current study examined the early literacy skills of kindergartners with hearing loss who were enrolled in individual inclusion or group inclusion programs as well as those of children with typical hearing. We also examined the relationship between early literacy skills and background variables such as degree of hearing loss, type of sensory aid used, age at onset of rehabilitation and family's socioeconomic status. Forty-two children participated: 16 were children with hearing loss in a group inclusive program, 15 were children with hearing loss in an individual inclusive program and 11 were children with typical hearing. We evaluated the following early literacy skills: word identification, writing level, phonological awareness, letter identification, orthographic awareness, general knowledge and vocabulary. Main findings indicated that children with hearing loss in the individual inclusive program yielded better achievements compared to those enrolled in the group inclusive program regarding phonological awareness, letter identification, general knowledge and vocabulary. Achievements of children with typical hearing in these parameters surpassed those of children with hearing loss in either of the inclusive programs. No statistically significant differences emerged between individual and group inclusive programs regarding reading, writing or orthographic awareness. Achievements of the hearing children in these parameters surpassed those enrolled in group inclusion but did not differ statistically from those enrolled in individual inclusion. Our findings showed a negative correlation between general knowledge and degree of hearing loss. Also, general knowledge, reading and writing correlated with age at onset of rehabilitation; no correlation emerged between socioeconomic status and children's early literacy skills. The results suggest that gaps in the academic achievements associated with literacy between children with and without hearing loss, as well as between children with hearing loss enrolled in different inclusive programs, already appear in kindergarten. Focusing on training and improvement of pre-literacy capabilities in kindergarten may decrease those gaps.
Alexander Graham Bell Association for the Deaf and Hard of Hearing. 3417 Volta Place NW, Washington, DC 20007. Tel: 202-337-5220; Fax: 202-337-8314; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Evaluative
Education Level: Early Childhood Education; Kindergarten
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A