ERIC Number: EJ835158
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2007-Dec
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: 48
Longitudinal Study of Reading Disability and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Implications for Education
Willcutt, Erik G.; Betjemann, Rebecca S.; Pennington, Bruce F.; Olson, Richard K.; Defries, John C.; Wadsworth, Sally J.
Mind, Brain, and Education, v1 n4 p181-192 Dec 2007
The majority of children who receive special education services meet criteria for reading disability (RD) or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but additional research is needed to understand the long-term academic outcome of children in these groups. Individuals with RD only (N = 71), ADHD only (N = 66), both RD and ADHD (N = 51), or neither disorder (N = 118) were identified through the ongoing Colorado Learning Disabilities Research Center twin study and retested 5 years later. Results of the follow-up testing indicated that, in addition to ongoing reading difficulties, individuals with RD exhibited higher rates of academic difficulties, depression, and adolescent-onset conduct disorder. Initial ADHD status was associated with academic and social difficulties and elevated rates of nearly all comorbid disorders 5 years later. The group with comorbid RD and ADHD had more stable reading deficits than the group with RD without ADHD and exhibited greater impairment than groups with either disorder alone on outcome measures of academic functioning and social difficulties. These results suggest that individuals with both RD and ADHD are at increased risk for negative outcomes as adolescents and young adults and that when RD and ADHD co-occur, interventions should be provided for both disorders.
Descriptors: Reading Difficulties, Learning Disabilities, Hyperactivity, Young Adults, Depression (Psychology), Attention Deficit Disorders, Longitudinal Studies, Special Education, Outcomes of Education, Identification, Twins, Behavior Disorders, Interpersonal Relationship, Risk, Academic Ability, Intervention
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Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A