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ERIC Number: EJ832504
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2009-Apr
Pages: 6
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: 28
ISSN: ISSN-0021-9584
Greener "Solutions" for the Organic Chemistry Teaching Lab: Exploring the Advantages of Alternative Reaction Media
McKenzie, Lallie C.; Huffman, Lauren M.; Hutchison, James E.; Rogers, Courtney E.; Goodwin, Thomas E.; Spessard, Gary O.
Journal of Chemical Education, v86 n4 p488-493 Apr 2009
A major approach for implementing green chemistry is the discovery and development of synthetic strategies that reduce the quantity of solvent needed, eliminate it altogether, or rely on new reaction media. An increasing number of examples have demonstrated that greener reaction solvents or media can enhance performance as well as reduce hazard. Here we describe four experiments designed for the undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory that illustrate both enhanced performance and a greener approach: (i) a solventless aldol condensation that involves the reaction of two solid reagents, (ii) a solvent-free, room temperature Diels-Alder reaction followed by an intramolecular nucleophilic acyl substitution, (iii) a Diels-Alder reaction in water, and (iv) a Diels-Alder reaction in polyethylene glycol (PEG) that may be conducted using microwave heating. The alternative solvents or reaction media used in these experiments not only reduce the use of hazardous and volatile organic solvents but also enhance the transformations by increasing the rate of reaction or facilitating recovery of the product. These thoroughly tested laboratory experiments are convenient, inexpensive, and rapid, thereby providing an opportunity to introduce green chemistry into educational settings easily. (Contains 4 schemes and 5 notes.)
Division of Chemical Education of the American Chemical Society. Subscription Department, P.O. Box 1267, Bellmawr, NJ 08099-1267. Tel: 800-691-9846; Tel: 856-931-5825; Fax: 856-931-4115; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Descriptive
Education Level: Higher Education
Audience: Teachers
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A