ERIC Number: EJ831246
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2006
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: 33
The "Nature" of Leadership Philosophy in Outdoor and Adventure Education: Partnership or Predation
Uhlik, Kim S.
Journal of Adventure Education and Outdoor Learning, v6 n2 p135-142 2006
Nature continually impresses humans in its role as an omnipresent, if not ultimate, source of power. One hallmark of outdoor and adventure education (OAE) has been its presumption that humans' interaction with aspects of Nature's "power" promotes the antecedents of leadership: measurable, persistent psychological effects and behavioral modifications including self-awareness, self-reliance, and stewardship. Recently, an unresolved discourse has arisen involving the guiding philosophies and actual outcomes derived from programs assembled under various combinations of the terms outdoor, adventure, environment, recreation, and education. Unifying these five terms is leadership potential mediated through Nature's metaphorical majesty and demonstrable power. However, Nature can be an ally, a medium, or an enemy, and outcomes resulting from OAE programs should be congruent with a consciously examined, coherent philosophy. A theoretical model depicts combinations of society, civilization, and culture placed along a continuum ranging from predation to partnership to demonstrate that the type of leadership emanating from any two or more perspectives may be very different. Nature is a complex system that is both predatory and partnering, and leadership in OAE must purposefully select and design programs that embrace the appropriate philosophy of Nature.
Descriptors: Program Design, Adventure Education, Leadership, Outdoor Education, Educational Philosophy, Metacognition, Learning Experience, Skill Development
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Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Descriptive
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A