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ERIC Number: EJ831183
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2009-Mar
Pages: 26
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: 110
ISSN: ISSN-0013-5984
Classifying Academically At-Risk First Graders into Engagement Types: Association with Long-Term Achievement Trajectories
Luo, Wen; Hughes, Jan N.; Liew, Jeffrey; Kwok, Oiman
Elementary School Journal, v109 n4 p380-405 Mar 2009
Based on a sample of 480 academically at-risk first graders, we used a cluster analysis involving multimethod assessment (i.e., teacher-report, peer-evaluation, and self-report) of behavioral and psychological engagement to identify subtypes of academic engagement. Four theoretically and practically meaningful clusters were identified and labeled as cooperative (n = 95), resistive (n = 96), enthusiastic (n = 188), and disaffected (n = 101). The 4 types did not differ in IQ measured with the Universal Nonverbal Intelligence Test. The cooperative group consisted of more female and Hispanic students, whereas the resistive group consisted of more male and African American students. The cooperative group was the most popular among peers, followed by the enthusiastic group. The disaffected and resistive groups had more emotional symptoms than the cooperative and enthusiastic groups. Academic engagement types also differed in growth trajectories of academic achievement measured with Woodcock Johnson III Tests of Achievement from second to fourth grade. For reading, the cooperative and enthusiastic groups outperformed the resistive and disaffected groups at the beginning. However, the growth rate was similar across engagement types. For math, the engagement types did not differ at the beginning. However, the cooperative group developed at a faster rate and had higher math achievement by fourth grade than the other types. The findings support the importance of teaching temperament-based regulatory skills and of providing a positive psychological climate for children's academic learning. (Contains 4 figures, 5 tables, and 1 note.)
University of Chicago Press. Journals Division, P.O. Box 37005, Chicago, IL 60637. Tel: 877-705-1878; Tel: 773-753-3347; Fax: 877-705-1879; Fax: 773-753-0811; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: Elementary Education; Grade 1; Grade 4
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Assessments and Surveys: Woodcock Johnson Tests of Achievement